Atomic reaction in which smaller nuclei fuse together to form larger ones, releasing energy in the process. Because the resultant nucleus is smaller in mass than the sum of the ones that made it; the difference in mass is converted into energy by the equation E=mc2.
Suns are powered by nuclear fusion, mostly converting hydrogen into helium. In this process, 4 hydrogen nuclei combine to form a single helium nucleus; about 0.3% of the original mass is converted into energy.
Nuclear fusion is an important power source on many worlds, especially newly developed ones, and in small military vehicles. Although sometimes used on interplanetary ships it is usually supplanted by amat or conversion technology (for ships). Some settled worlds prefer renewable energy sources like wind or solar energy instead of nuclear fusion.
- Fusion Plasma Rockets
- Fusion Reactor
- Nuclear Engineering
- Nuclear Fission - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
The process whereby the nucleus of an unstable (radioactive) heavy element spontaneously splits into two smaller nuclei, releasing energy and charged particles.
- Nuclear Physics - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
The study of the physical processes at the scale of the atomic nucleus. Concerns itself with the structure and behavior of the atomic nucleus according quantum mechanics and particle physics; with practical applications in the working of nuclear reactors, radioactive fission, and fusion burning in the interior of stars.
- Nuclear Reaction - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
A self-perpetuating chain reaction involving the production of heavy nuclei from the fusion of lighter ones, or lighter nuclei from the fission of heavier ones.
- Nuclear Reactor - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
A power plant that uses controlled atomic fission or fusion to generate energy.
- Nucleosynthesis - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
The production of new elements that occurs naturally in stars via nuclear reactions, and in supernova explosions. Nucleosynthesis is also an important part of alchemics.
- Nucleosynthetic Era - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
The era following the Leptonic Era, between 1 second and 1,000 seconds after the Big Bang, in which light elements (helium and deuterium) are synthesized during the hot early phases of the hot Big Bang.
- Proton - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
One of the two basic elementary particles found the atomic nucleus, the other being the neutron. It has a positive charge equal and opposite that of the electron, and a mass similar to the neutron. Protons have a mass of 1.007276 daltons, or 1.6726 = 10-27 kg.
- Proton-Proton Chain - Text by M. Alan Kazlev
A series of three thermonuclear reactions that convert hydrogen nuclei to helium nuclei, converting a tiny amount of mass into energy. The process is efficient at temperatures above 10,000,000 K. In most less massive stars, this chain is the primary source of heat and radiation. The proton-proton chain converts hydrogen into helium releasing energy in the form of particles and gamma-rays. Hydrogen is converted into helium in a chain of reactions. The first reaction takes an average of 1 billion years to occur while the others are much shorter. Generally there are so many hydrogen nuclei that the 1 billion year waiting period does not stop it from producing tremendous radiation.