Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, Old Earth 405-327 BT (1564-1642 AD); one of the creators of the scientific method of hypothesis, experiment and theory formation. Discovered that (contrary to Aristotle's teachings, and a literal interpretation of biblical poetry) the speed at which bodies fall does not depend on their weight. Invented the thermometer. Did not invent the telescope but was the first to use it for astronomical purposes; discovered the rings of Saturn, the four major moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, sunspots, and many other important phenomena. Advocated the Heliocentric (Copernican) system and was accused of heresy by the Inquisition (in 336 BT, 1633 AD), less for his Copernicanism and more because the Pope felt he was being satirised in Galileo's book on the subject, and spent the remainder of his life under house arrest.