One of two quantum classes of fundamental particles. Distinguished by integer or zero spins (the statistics of their behaviour in groups governed by Bose-Einstein statistics, as first described by S. N. Bose and Albert Einstein) and hence being able to occupy the same quantum state at the same time. Include photons, gluons, and the Z and W weakons, plus particles such as mesons, atomic nuclei, and atoms, in which the half-integer spins of the components cancel or add to integer spins. Contrast with the fermion.
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Development Notes
Text by M. Alan Kazlev
Initially published on 08 October 2001.