Athens, Greece
City State, Classical Era, Mediterranean Europe, Old Earth; a major influence on later Western civilizations, and so eventually the early Terragen civilizations of Solsys and the Inner Sphere.

Named after its patron goddess Athena, the city was first settled in the Bronze Age, and was governed until about 2700 BT (1000 BC) by Ionian kings. After that was a rigid rule by aristocrats. Finally Cleisthenes (building on the system of the great reformist Solon) circa 2475 BT (506 BC) established a democracy, although this only applied to free males. Following the Persian Wars (2469-2418 BT; 500-449 BC) Athens was the strongest Greek city-state, and reached the height of its cultural and imperial achievement under Pericles (2412-2398 BT; 443-429 BC) but the protracted Peloponnesian War with Sparta brought about its decline, and the growth of Macedon's power under Philip II meant the end of Athens as a major power, although the city itself was to remain inhabited right up until the Great Expulsion. The ruins of Athens (including a semi-restored restored Parthenon) are currently accessible and can be visited under strict pilgrimage conditions

The cultural legacy of ancient Athens to Old Earth (and ultimately all Terragen civilization) is incalculable; to a great extent the references to the Greek heritage that abound in the culture of Western Europe and Western Civilization in general are to Athenian civilization.
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Development Notes
Text by M. Alan Kazlev; some additions by Stephen Inniss
Initially published on 07 October 2001.